Physical Evidence of Creation

The Theory of Evolution states that modern man evolved from the ape family. This can not be verified as the 'missing link' has not as yet been found. There is no conclusive evidence to prove that man evolved from apes.

Footprints of modern man have been found side by side with dinosaur tracks.

Archeological evidence exists that contradicts this theory of 'the origin of man'. Modern human artifacts have been found in all layers of geological strata some going back hundreds of millions of years. These artifacts prove that modern man may be million of years older than history tells us.


NEWS ARTICLES



Key to Earth's Evolution? October 2002 - Reuters
There are two Holy Grails in science today � the first is 
the pursuit of an answer to the question "How did the 
universe begin?" The second is "How did life begin, 
and is it a universal phenomenon?"

Evolution upset: Oxygen-making microbes came last, not first Ocotber 2002 - Eureka Alert

The Endless Cyclic Universe   August 2002 - Princeton

Atlas maps the web of life August 2002 - BBC

Species and languages flock together  August 2002 - Nature

Life's Grand Design   August 2002 - US News

Molecular "spark of life" discovered   July 2002 - New Scientist
  The molecule that triggers the fertilization of a 
  mammalian egg and prompts it to begin growing 
  and dividing has been discovered. The identification 
  of this "spark of life" is significant for work on infertility 
  treatments, male contraceptives and cloning.


Origins of Life  May 2002 - Nature Magazine   

Origin Of Bipedalism Tied To Environmental Changes   May 2002 - Science Daily

Ponds, not oceans, the cradle of life    May 2002 - New Scientist magazine

History in a Cell  May 2002 The Atlantic News 
   The creation of different races through the information encoded in our DNA


Once upon a time 3.5 billion years ago

Life began on Earth soon after the planet cooled down

August 13, 1999 - Journal of Science

Scientists studying Australian rocks have found evidence that primitive forms of life existed 2.8 billion years ago instead of a billion years earlier than had been previously shown.

Cells, the most important stage in evolution

The molecules come from ancient single-celled organisms that scientists call Eukaryotes, microbes made of a cell with internal structure.

The research demonstrates that even two and a half billion years ago evolution had produced the basic divisions of life we see on our planet today.

Almost immediately after the Earth had cooled and a solid crust formed life arose. The first three billion years of the Earth's history was the age of microbes.

Firstly to appear were self-replicating molecules. Then these molecules became more complicated and evolved a membrane inside which they were protected from the changing external environment. These were the first cells that became primitive bacteria, termed Prokaryotes.

What happened next is still highly controversial. One idea is that one type of cell went to live inside another forming the first cell with an internal membrane, the so-called Eukaryotes.

All animals and plants are classified as Eukaryotes. The prokaryote group contains two types of bacteria; the Eubacteria and the mysterious Archaebacteria which are as different from Eubacteria as they are from Eukaryotes.

"The molecular fossils we report are the oldest preserved biological molecules in the world," said researcher Jochen J. Brocks.

"This age should provide a new calibration point for molecular clocks and the universal tree of life," Brocks and his fellow Australian researchers report Friday in the journal Science.

The finding pushes back evidence of life to the Archean era, the period from the beginning of Earth to about 2.5 billion years ago.

"It was unknown that complex molecules can survive such a long period of time on Earth," Brocks, of the University of Sydney and the Australian Geological Survey, said in response to questions via e-mail. "We opened up a window into a time when almost nothing was known about life on Earth and provide a tool that will multiply our knowledge about this shadow land."

Most rocks as old as the ones studied have undergone a process called metamorphism, an intense geological heating that changes them and which scientists believed would destroy any organic compounds they contained. But the shales studied by this team were well-preserved and still contained the biological chemicals.

The researchers found evidence of organic compounds called lipids in the sedimentary rocks located more than 2,100 feet deep in northwestern Australia's Roy Hill Shale and Marra Mamba Formations. The rocks formed a seabed 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion years ago.

Lipids are produced by living organisms and finding them indicates the presence of eukaryotes - life forms with cells that have a distinct nucleus.

Because of their complexity, eukaryotes were thought to have developed relatively late in Earth's history. This discovery pushes the date for their appearance back to the earliest part of geological time.

The researchers noted that a similar report several years ago had been discounted by scientists who assumed the rocks had been contaminated with more recent chemicals.

To be sure that wasn't the case this time, they put their rock samples through several rinses in solvents to remove any possible contaminants.

The rocks were then ground and chemicals, including sterane, a hydrocarbon of biological origin, were extracted. Steranes derive from sterols, a component of certain living tissues, the best known of which is cholesterol.

"The biomarkers we report are the oldest known that" can be shown to have originated in the areas where they were found and were formed at the same time as the rocks in that area, the researchers said.

"They are more than a billion years older than those from the 'Barney Creek Formation', previously the oldest well-characterized molecular fossils," they reported.

Brocks said the finding will help scientists who are trying to calculate back to the common ancestor of all living things.

In this effort scientists came up with widely different values, he noted, with some calculating the origin of eukaryotes to 1.8 billion years ago.

"Now we found that eukaryotes already lived 2.8 billion years ago, hence proving many molecular clocks wrong," he said.

There is some evidence for the existence of what may have "possibly" been bacteria even earlier, Brocks added.


Discoveries Suggest First Americans Arrived More Than 30,000 Years Ago

February 17, 1998 - AP The once neat and tidy picture of how people first migrated to the new world has been thrown into turmoil by discoveries that push back the time of the first arrivals by thousands of years.

Discoveries of ancient skeletons, dwelling sites, language histories and genetic evidence all suggest that Asians migrated across the Bering Straits in successive waves over thousands of years and then fanned out into North and South America.

Gone is the idea that Asians came across the Bering land bridge in a major migration 10,000 to 11,000 years ago and first settled at a site near Clovis, N.M. 1996-1998 have been an extremely exciting time of discovery in the study of the first Americans.

A dwelling site in Monte Verde, in southern Chile, has been accepted by most scientists as the earliest confirmed place of sustained human habitation in the new world. It has been dated to 12,500 years ago. By some estimates, it would have taken more than 6,000 years for people to have journeyed by stages from the Bering Straits to Monte Verde. "That means the peopling of America started as early as 20,000 years ago", said Tom Dillehay, a University of Kentucky researcher who first excavated Monte Verde. He said there is some evidence that people may have lived in Chile as early as 33,000 years ago.

He doubts that the migration was even stopped by the glacial maximum, a 9,000-year period during which the Alaska-Siberian corridor was clogged with mountains of ice starting about 22,000 years ago.

Ancient skeletons found in Nevada and Washington, and in parts of South America, suggest that the early Americans came from both Mongoloid and non-Mongolian Asian groups. Stanford said there are fundamental racial differences in the facial bones and in the teeth. This supports the idea of successive waves of migration from Asia.

Johanna Nichols, a University of California, Berkeley, linguist, said that a study of the original roots of the 140 languages spoken by Indians in North and South America show at least four waves of migration.

There is clear linguist evidence, she said, that people migrated from Asia 22,000 years ago, just before the age of glaciers.

After the ice retreated, Nichols said another group crossed over from Asia, while some of those who had first settled in South America migrated up to the central Plains of what is now the United States. She said the Sioux language, for instance, has its roots in the Indian speech of South America.

And finally, about 5,000 years ago, a wave of Asians moved into Alaska, Canada and Greenland, bringing with them the language now spoken by the Eskimo, she said.

Language changes at a specific rate, said Nichols, and for 140 distinct languages to evolve in the Americas could have taken as long as 40,000 years.


100,000 Year Old Footprint Found

August 15, 1998- AP

Johannesburg - More than 100,000 years ago, probably on a rainy day, a human walked in wet sand near what is now Langebaan Lagoon. The footprints he, or more likely she, left behind were covered in more sand, in succeeding layers blown in on the sea winds, and then preserved as the dunes slowly turned to rock.

The fossilized prints, found by geologist Dave Roberts of the Council for Geoscience, are among the earliest traces of anatomically modern humans ever uncovered.

Subjected to a series of tests by the Quaternary Dating Research Unit at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the fossils' age is estimated at 117 000 years.

Roberts and Lee Berger, a paleoanthropologist at the University of the Witwatersrand, announced the discovery this week in Washington DC. The two also describe the footprints in the September issues of the South African Journal of Science and National Geographic.

The prints head down the steep slope of a sand dune, on a diagonal. There are two complete prints, plus the eroded remains of a third, in a right-left-right march toward the beach. The feet that made the prints were small, about 22cm long. While foot length is not a precise predictor of height, Berger said in a recent interview, the feet probably belonged to "a smallish individual," someone of a stature comparable to adult San men and women in the central Kalahari before 1915.

The image is an evocative one, the prints a haunting hello from our earliest direct ancestors. "As my toes touch the rock, I feel an almost electric connection to the past," wrote Rick Gore, National Geographic senior assistant editor, after removing his shoes and socks and fitting his foot into one of the prints.

By themselves the prints do not add much to what is already known about early humans - they cannot be compared to the footprint trail Mary Leakey found at Laetoli. In the 1970's Mary Leaky, the wife of Louis Leaky, one of the greatest anthropologists of the century, found at a place called Latoilee, in Kenya a set of modern human footprints in volcanic ash that was dated to be 3 million years old. This contradicts theories that humans are only100,000 years old.

A set fossil footprints was found in 1966, in fossil dunes near East London. The CSIR is working now to determine the date of the "Nahoon footprints."

The Langebaan prints date to a time of growing interest to scientists - the point in prehistory that modern humans evolved, most probably in Africa.

Berger's the 31-year-old head of the Palaeoanthropological research group at Wits Universitytheory is that the southern tip of Africa, geographically and genetically isolated from the rest of the continent by deserts,mountains, and malarial swamps, was ideal for the emergence of new species of living things, including humans.

The footprint find adds Langebaan Lagoon to an exclusive list of early human fossil sites. The fossil record from the age of human emergence is sparse, with no more than three dozen human remnants found in Africa. Most have been found in South Africa.

Best known of the South African sites are Klasie's River Mouth near Hermanus, where early humans sheltered between 120 000 and 60 000 years ago, Border Cave in the Lebombo Mountains near Swaziland, and Wunderwerk Cave in the Northern Cape.

"South African sites are among the most significant for fossil remains of anatomically modern humans... We have fossils, human fossils, actual skeletal material from several sites ... that are amongst the earliest known remnants of anatomically modern people," said Hilary Deacon, professor of archaeology at Stellenbosch University.

Archaeologists have found evidence in South Africa that the first humans engaged in such relatively sophisticated behavior as adorning themselves with red ochre "crayons." They hunted dangerous animals, such as the now-extinct giant buffalo with a horn-span of nine feet. They fished in the sea, slept on grass mats, decorated the dead.

They appear to belong to the time period of 100,000 to 120 000 years ago. That's an enormously interesting time period in terms of the origins of anatomically modern humans. There are a lot of possible directions one can go in, which have the potential of throwing light on the question of human origins."



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